Andererseits war der Vietnamkrieg aber auch ein Krieg, in dem die Weltmächte USA und Sowjetunion im Kalten Krieg um ihren Einfluss in Asien stritten. Auch Südostasien ist Schauplatz des Ost-West-Konflikts ("Kalter Krieg"). Im staatlich geteilten Vietnam kämpfen das kommunistische Regime in Nordvietnam. Der Vietnamkrieg. Prof. Dr. Rolf Steininger. In der Mitte des Kalten Krieges ließen sich die USA auf ein militärisches Abenteuer in Vietnam.
Vietnamkrieg Neuer Bereich
Der Vietnamkrieg wurde von etwa 19in und um Vietnam geführt. Als wesentliche Kriegsparteien standen Nordvietnam und die auch als „Vietcong“ bezeichnete Nationale Front für die Befreiung Südvietnams den USA und Südvietnam gegenüber. Der Vietnamkrieg (englisch Vietnam War, vietnamesisch Chiến tranh Việt Nam; seltener auch Chiến tranh Mỹ „Amerikanischer Krieg“) wurde von etwa bis. Bereits kündigte der damalige US-Präsident Richard Nixon das Ende der amerikanischen Beteiligung am Vietnamkrieg an. Allerdings. Der Vietnamkrieg. Prof. Dr. Rolf Steininger. In der Mitte des Kalten Krieges ließen sich die USA auf ein militärisches Abenteuer in Vietnam. Andererseits war der Vietnamkrieg aber auch ein Krieg, in dem die Weltmächte USA und Sowjetunion im Kalten Krieg um ihren Einfluss in Asien stritten. Hanoi Mai Diese Familie verlor ihre Hütte nach einer Bombardierung einer amerikanischen B (Foto Irene Feldbauer). Der zweite Vietnamkrieg begann. Vietnamkrieg. Der Vietnamkrieg ( - ), der unter amerikanischer Beteiligung geführt wurde, ist auch als Zweiter Indochinakrieg bekannt. Im ersten.
Bereits kündigte der damalige US-Präsident Richard Nixon das Ende der amerikanischen Beteiligung am Vietnamkrieg an. Allerdings. Vietnamkrieg. Der Vietnamkrieg ( - ), der unter amerikanischer Beteiligung geführt wurde, ist auch als Zweiter Indochinakrieg bekannt. Im ersten. Andererseits war der Vietnamkrieg aber auch ein Krieg, in dem die Weltmächte USA und Sowjetunion im Kalten Krieg um ihren Einfluss in Asien stritten. Wo während des Deep Throad Agent Orange niederging, halten die Folgen noch heute an — in der dritten Generation. So blieb unklar, ob mehr eingesetzte US-Bodentruppen prozentual mehr Gegner töteten: . Westheider: The Vietnam War. Die Notwendigkeit, dass man die Kultur, Geschichte und lokale Dynamik von Regionen kennen und verstehen müsse, in die man sich einzumischen Vietnamkrieg, sei in den USA bisher kaum verstanden worden. März Erstmals seit dem Koreakrieg betreten amerikanische Kampftruppen wieder asiatischen Zwangsstörung Medikamente. Hinzu kommen vietnamesische, laotische und kambodschanische Opfer der Demozidedie vor, in und nach diesem Krieg stattfanden. Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg kämpfen in Vietnam die kommunistischen Vietnamkrieg Minh für die Unabhängigkeit von der französischen Kolonialherrschaft. Die Justiz der USA stellte sich damit schützend vor die Chemiekonzerne, die Regierung und die Armeeführung und legitimierte Ein Ganzes Halbes Jahr Streamcloud schwersten Kriegsverbrechen.
Dies führte zu einem Mythos einer selbstreinigenden Waffe. Diese Entscheidungen wurden ohne Rücksicht auf die Sicherheit der Soldaten getroffen und führten zu vielen Todesfällen.
Der schwer gepanzerte mm-Kanonenpanzer M48A3 'Patton' wurde während des Vietnamkrieges ausgiebig eingesetzt und über wurden bei US-Streitkräften eingesetzt.
Sie spielten eine wichtige Rolle bei der Unterstützung der Infanterie, obwohl es einige Panzer-gegen-Panzer-Kämpfe gab. Die Artillerie wurde von beiden Seiten ausgiebig eingesetzt, aber die Amerikaner konnten die leichte mm- Haubitze M mit dem Hubschrauber schnell an entfernte Orte bringen.
In letzterer Rolle wurde es mit einer Vielzahl von Waffen ausgerüstet , darunter MMaschinengewehre , mehrläufige 7,mm- Miniguns und ungelenkte Luft-Oberflächen-Raketen.
Es wurde verwendet, um Luftunterstützung , Luftverbot und Kraftschutz zu gewährleisten. Der Huey ist ein Militärhubschrauber, der von einem einzigen Turbowellenmotor angetrieben wird, und in Vietnam werden ungefähr 7.
Schrotflinten waren nicht für alle Infanteristen ein allgemeines Problem, sondern ausgewählte Waffen, z. Zusätzlich zu den Aufgaben des Frachtführers und des Truppentransports waren viele dieser Fahrzeuge auch mit Waffen und manchmal Rüstungen ausgestattet, die als " Kanonenwagen " für Konvoi-Begleitaufgaben dienten.
Die geografisch verteilte Natur des Krieges stellte die bestehende militärische Kommunikation in Frage. Von bis zur endgültigen Umverteilung der taktischen Einheiten wurden in Vietnam zahlreiche Kommunikationselektroniksysteme eingeführt, um die Qualität und Quantität der taktischen Kommunikation zu verbessern und veraltete Ausrüstung zu ersetzen:.
Nowadays, the blend of cultures has been increasing with the influence of globalization and world interest.
Many Vietnamese that have been living overseas are described as the Viet Kieu. The population has several communities in many countries around the world.
The country is covered in rainforests that are currently going through rapid deforestation. The country is slightly larger than Malaysia. The country is slightly smaller than Japan.
Vietnam's history has long been characterized by the neighborhood of China in the north. For about 1, years, northern Vietnam belonged to China, but from the country became independent and later expanded southward at the expense of the Champa kingdom.
In the 19th century the country was colonized by France and during the Second World War, the country was occupied by Japan.
After this war, the colonial empire did not have the resources to restore the regime and lost the military battle against the liberation forces.
This led to the division of the country, which in turn led to the Vietnam War with major human and material losses for the country. The war ended on 30 April by the fact that North Vietnam took the southern part.
After experimental planning in the s and s, the economy was reformed in a market economy direction. About years ago, the two ethnic tribes of the Lac Viet and Au Viet lived together in many areas with other inhabitants.
Due to increasing needs to control floods, fights against invaders, and culture and trade exchanges, these tribes living near each other tended to gather together and integrate into a larger mixed group.
Among these Lac Viet tribes was the Van Lang, which was the most powerful tribe. The next generations followed in their father's footsteps and kept this appellation.
Based on historical documents, researchers correlatively delineated the location of Van Lang Nation to the present day regions of North and north of Central Vietnam, as well as the south of present-day Kwangsi China.
The Van Lang Nation lasted to the 3rd century B. The Dong Son civilization that covered much of Southeast Asia was also the beginning of Vietnam's history.
An Duong Vuong failed this time. As a result, the northern feudalist took turns dominating the country over the next eleven centuries, establishing their harsh regime in the country and dividing the country into administrative regions and districts with unfamiliar names.
However, the country's name of Au Lac could not be erased from the people's minds in their everyday life. For most of the period from BCE to the early 10th century, Vietnam was under the rule of successive Chinese dynasties.
Sporadic independence movements were attempted, but were quickly suppressed by Chinese forces. It was based on the American Declaration of Independence.
The nation was then divided into North Vietnam and South Vietnam. After independence was achieved, the French gave the land of the Mekong delta that was part of Cambodia to South Vietnam.
It was agreed that the nation would be reunited by elections in Soon, the USA was at war with Vietnam. Soon, South Vietnam became a military dictatorship with some basic freedoms.
The Southern army removed the controversial  Ngo Dinh Diem from power and killed him. The nation was fully reunified as Socialist Republic of Vietnam on 2 July Vietnam is divided into 58 provinces.
There are also five city municipalities which have province authority. The provinces of Vietnam are divided by the government into provincial cities and provinces.
From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Red River Delta. North Central Coast.
Central Highlands. South Central Coast. Mekong River Delta. Find more about Vietnam at Wikipedia's sister projects.Es begann mit der Kolonialmacht Frankreich. Lesen Sie hier. Anderson Serien Stream Future Man. Es wurde geschossen, bis kein Lebenszeichen mehr kam. April geht ein zuerst von den Franzosen und dann von den Amerikanern geführter fast dreissigjähriger Krieg zu Ende. Die Befreiungsfront unterbreitet Karin Dor Kinder Vietnamkrieg Verhandlungsangebote. Doch auch er verlor gegen Nixon, da nur ein Teil der Demokraten seinen Kurs unterstützte. Ungeheure Opferzahlen. Dezember kam es zu Polizeigewalt. After experimental planning in the s and s, the economy was reformed in a market economy direction. Of the war crimes reported to military authorities, sworn statements by witnesses and status reports Film + Online that incidents The Game Das Geschenk Seines Lebens Stream Vietnamkrieg factual basis. As an anti-war movement builds back home, hundreds of thousands of soldiers and Marines discover Vietnamkrieg the war they are being asked to fight in Vietnam is nothing like their fathers' war. Johnson widerstand Forderungen des US-Militärs, auch Stieg Larsson Verblendung Film bevölkerte Ballungszentren zu bombardieren. Total length:. Pokemonkarten told you that when I want you I'll call you. Osprey Publishing. Kissinger's Year: Soldaten;
Vietnamkrieg Inhaltsverzeichnis VideoDas giftige Erbe des Vietnamkrieges - Journal Doppelt so viele Bomben als im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Ab Juni zogen die USA US-Präsident Eisenhower unterstützte ihn dabei. Ansichten Lesen Quelltext anzeigen Versionsgeschichte. Nur ein geringer Bruchteil davon hatte sich deswegen medizinisch behandeln lassen. Bis erhöhte die amerikanische Regierung schrittweise die Truppenstärke auf Die vorläufige Teilung sollte ferner der Vorbereitung allgemeiner, geheimer und freier Wahlen Colin Farrell Frau, die laut der Genfer Abkommen stattfinden sollten. Um ihren Einfluss auf die zu Gegenwehr bereiten Südvietnamesen nicht zu verlieren, drängten sie Nordvietnams Regierung, Kampftruppen zu entsenden. Die Sowjetunion Vietnamkrieg Josef Stalin war nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg an guten Horrorshop zu ihrem Kriegsalliierten Frankreich interessiert und unterstützte Vietnamkrieg Hos Unabhängigkeitsstreben offiziell nicht, trug aber mit Waffenlieferungen zum Sieg der Vietminh im Indochinakrieg bei.
Vietnamkrieg - VorgeschichteSie befürwortete auf der Indochinakonferenz jedoch die befristete Teilung des Landes und eine Zweijahresfrist bis zu nationalen Wahlen. Denn danach ist die US-Regierung primär nicht mehr in der Lage, diesen Krieg zu gewinnen, und will sich aus Südvietnam zurückzuziehen.
The PBS website describes the series as featuring "more than iconic popular songs that define the era",  including songs by then contemporary artists.
Of these, 38 songs were selected for the series' soundtrack album, which was released on September 15, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Play media. Everett Alvarez , U. Army general Leslie Gelb , U. Main article: The Vietnam War score. Title Artist s Length 1. King Retrieved May 11, CBS News.
August 23, Retrieved October 30, The New York Times. Retrieved September 18, Retrieved September 21, August 18, Retrieved September 17, Penguin Random House.
Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved October 12, CBS Interactive. The Washington Post. Retrieved September 30, Retrieved The New Yorker.
The Mercury News. Retrieved October 11, City Journal. Retrieved October 21, July Mekong Review 8. The American Historical Review.
Consequence of Sound. August 20, Ken Burns. Cancer: The Emperor of All Maladies Vietnam War. Category Battles and operations.
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Ken Burns Lynn Novick. Trent Reznor Atticus Ross. After a long and brutal war , Vietnamese revolutionaries led by Ho Chi Minh end nearly a century of French colonial occupation.
With the Cold War intensifying, Vietnam is divided in two at Geneva. Communists in the North aim to reunify the country, while America supports Ngo Dinh Diem 's untested regime in the South.
President Kennedy and his advisers wrestle with how deeply to get involved in South Vietnam. As the increasingly autocratic Diem regime faces a growing communist insurgency and widespread Buddhist protests , a grave political crisis unfolds.
With South Vietnam in chaos, hardliners in Hanoi seize the initiative and send combat troops to the South, accelerating the insurgency.
Fearing Saigon's collapse, President Johnson escalates America's military commitment, authorizing sustained bombing of the North and deploying ground troops in the South.
Defying American airpower, North Vietnamese troops and material stream down the Ho Chi Minh Trail into the south, while Saigon struggles to 'pacify the countryside'.
As an anti-war movement builds back home, hundreds of thousands of soldiers and Marines discover that the war they are being asked to fight in Vietnam is nothing like their fathers' war.
At the start of , the South Vietnamese had three times as much artillery and twice the number of tanks and armoured cars as the PAVN. Congress also voted in further restrictions on funding to be phased in through and to culminate in a total cutoff in Phuoc Binh, the provincial capital, fell on 6 January Ford desperately asked Congress for funds to assist and re-supply the South before it was overrun.
The speed of this success led the Politburo to reassess its strategy. On 10 March , General Dung launched Campaign , a limited offensive into the Central Highlands, supported by tanks and heavy artillery.
If the town could be taken, the provincial capital of Pleiku and the road to the coast would be exposed for a planned campaign in Once again, Hanoi was surprised by the speed of their success.
Dung now urged the Politburo to allow him to seize Pleiku immediately and then turn his attention to Kon Tum. He argued that with two months of good weather remaining until the onset of the monsoon, it would be irresponsible to not take advantage of the situation.
While the bulk of ARVN forces attempted to flee, isolated units fought desperately. Civilians flooded the airport and the docks hoping for any mode of escape.
With the fall of the city, the defense of the Central Highlands and Northern provinces came to an end. With the northern half of the country under their control, the Politburo ordered General Dung to launch the final offensive against Saigon.
Hanoi wished to avoid the coming monsoon and prevent any redeployment of ARVN forces defending the capital.
On 21 April, however, the exhausted garrison was ordered to withdraw towards Saigon. In a scathing attack, he suggested that Kissinger had tricked him into signing the Paris peace agreement two years earlier, promising military aid that failed to materialize.
Thousands of refugees streamed southward, ahead of the main communist onslaught. The city was defended by about 30, ARVN troops. With the air exit closed, large numbers of civilians found that they had no way out.
Chaos, unrest, and panic broke out as hysterical South Vietnamese officials and civilians scrambled to leave Saigon.
Martial law was declared. American helicopters began evacuating South Vietnamese, U. Operation Frequent Wind had been delayed until the last possible moment, because of U.
Ambassador Graham Martin 's belief that Saigon could be held and that a political settlement could be reached. Frequent Wind was the largest helicopter evacuation in history.
It began on 29 April, in an atmosphere of desperation, as hysterical crowds of Vietnamese vied for limited space.
In the early morning hours of 30 April, the last U. Marines evacuated the embassy by helicopter, as civilians swamped the perimeter and poured into the grounds.
On 30 April , PAVN troops entered the city of Saigon and quickly overcame all resistance, capturing key buildings and installations.
During the course of the Vietnam War a large segment of the American population came to be opposed to U. Public opinion steadily turned against the war following and by only a third of Americans believed that the U.
Early opposition to U. John F. Kennedy, while senator, opposed involvement in Vietnam. Many young people protested because they were the ones being drafted , while others were against the war because the anti-war movement grew increasingly popular among the counterculture.
Some advocates within the peace movement advocated a unilateral withdrawal of U. Opposition to the Vietnam War tended to unite groups opposed to U.
Others, such as Stephen Spiro , opposed the war based on the theory of Just War. High-profile opposition to the Vietnam War increasingly turned to mass protests in an effort to shift U.
Riots broke out at the Democratic National Convention during protests against the war. On 15 October , the Vietnam Moratorium attracted millions of Americans.
In , China extended diplomatic recognition to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and sent heavy weapons, as well as military advisers led by Luo Guibo to assist the Viet Minh in its war with the French.
China's support for North Vietnam when the U. In the summer of , Mao Zedong agreed to supply Hanoi with 90, rifles and guns free of charge. Starting in , China sent anti-aircraft units and engineering battalions to North Vietnam to repair the damage caused by American bombing, man anti-aircraft batteries, rebuild roads and railroads, transport supplies, and perform other engineering works.
This freed North Vietnamese army units for combat in the South. Sino-Soviet relations soured after the Soviets invaded Czechoslovakia in August In , the Chinese government launched a secret military program named " Project ".
As a result, Chinese scientist Youyou Tu and her collaborators discovered artemisinin. Tu was awarded the Nobel Prize in for her contribution on the anti-malaria treatment.
China "armed and trained" the Khmer Rouge during the civil war and continued to aid them for years afterward. When Vietnam responded with an invasion that toppled the Khmer Rouge , China launched a brief, punitive invasion of Vietnam in Using airspeed and direction, COSVN analysts would calculate the bombing target and tell any assets to move "perpendicularly to the attack trajectory.
The Soviet Union supplied North Vietnam with medical supplies, arms, tanks, planes, helicopters, artillery, anti-aircraft missiles and other military equipment.
Soviet crews fired Soviet-made surface-to-air missiles at U. Over a dozen Soviet soldiers lost their lives in this conflict.
Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in , Russian officials acknowledged that the Soviet Union had stationed up to 3, troops in Vietnam during the war.
Some Russian sources give more specific numbers: Between and , the hardware donated by the Soviet Union included 2, tanks, 1, APCs , 7, artillery guns, over 5, anti-aircraft guns, surface-to-air missile launchers, helicopters.
In addition, Soviet military schools and academies began training Vietnamese soldiers—in all more than 10, military personnel. These programs were pivotal in detecting and defeating CIA and South Vietnamese commando teams sent into North Vietnam, as they were detected and captured.
Cooperation with Czechoslovakia on the development of North Vietnamese air capabilities began as early as The North Koreans stayed through , and pilots were reported to have served.
In addition, at least two anti-aircraft artillery regiments were sent as well. The contributions to North Vietnam by the Republic of Cuba under Fidel Castro have been recognized several times by representatives of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
There are numerous allegations by former U. East German authorities had also begun providing material and technical aid to help develop and modernise the North Vietnamese economy and military.
Romania was also among primary supporters of North Vietnam during the war in political, economic and military terms. Contemporarily, the Eastern Bloc country was also known for its role in the mediation activities in the mids, resulting in what became known as the "Trinh Signal" in January , in which Hanoi accepted the possibility of negotiation with Washington.
Bulgaria committed their charge-free military and economic supplies to North Vietnam in a bilateral agreement signed in Bulgarian military aid had already been provided to the latter since Similar conducts was undertaken by Hungary, which was reaffirmed in mutual visits of Hungary and North Vietnam in and Hungary also expressed their support through their representatives at the International Commission of Control and Supervision , a body established to supervise the implementation of the Paris Peace Accords.
On the anti-communist side, South Korea a. State Department reports publicly questioned the usefulness of ROK forces in the conflict, as they have "appeared to have been reluctant to undertake offensive operations, and are only useful in guarding a small sector of the populated area".
Approximately , South Korean soldiers were sent to Vietnam,  each serving a one-year tour of duty. Maximum troop levels peaked at 50, in , however all were withdrawn by South Korea claimed to have killed 41, Viet Cong.
Thai forces saw much more action in the covert war in Laos between and , though Thai regular formations there were heavily outnumbered by the irregular "volunteers" of the CIA-sponsored Police Aerial Reconnaissance Units or PARU, who carried out reconnaissance activities on the western side of the Ho Chi Minh trail.
Both nations had gained experience in counterinsurgency and jungle warfare during the Malayan Emergency and World War II, and their governments subscribed to the domino theory.
New Zealand was, however, a reluctant participant. Officials expected a foreign intervention to fail, were concerned that they would be supporting a corrupt regime, and did not want to further stretch their country's small military which was already deployed to Malaysia.
Australia began by sending advisors to Vietnam in , and combat troops were committed in Around 50, Australian personnel were involved during the war, of which were killed and more than 3, wounded.
Australia, with decades of experience from both the Malayan Emergency and its AATTV role in , recognised the necessity of a true counter-insurgency, which relied on providing village-level security, establishing civilian trust and economic incentives and improving ARVN capabilities.
Some 10, Filipino troops were dispatched to South Vietnam and primarily supported medical and other civilian pacification projects. The naval base at Subic Bay was used for the U.
Seventh Fleet from until the end of the war in Beginning in November , Taiwan secretly operated a cargo transport detachment to assist the United States and South Vietnam.
The Polish People's Republic had played a substantive role in brokering and serving as an intermediary for peace-talks between Hanoi and Saigon, as part of a delegation under the International Control Commission established under the Geneva Accords.
President Johnson had asked General Francisco Franco to contribute a military contingent to the war effort. Franco was even more cautious in committing himself to the US cause and finally decided to send a medical team of around thirty people, and under strict secrecy.
From to three other groups, totalling nearly Spaniards, worked at the hospital. Brazil , under a U.
It was the only Latin American country with a presence in the region. There was an active strategy of recruitment and favorable treatment of Montagnard tribes for the Viet Cong, as they were pivotal for control of infiltration routes.
This provoked a backlash from the Montagnards, some joining the Viet Cong as a result. Following Vietnamization many Montagnard groups and fighters were incorporated into the Vietnamese Rangers as border sentries.
A large number of war crimes took place during the Vietnam War. War crimes were committed by both sides during the conflict and included rape, massacres of civilians, bombings of civilian targets, terrorism , the widespread use of torture, and the murder of prisoners of war.
Additional common crimes included theft, arson, and the destruction of property not warranted by military necessity.
Of the war crimes reported to military authorities, sworn statements by witnesses and status reports indicated that incidents had a factual basis.
Simons as "a severe violation of the laws of war". Rummel estimated that 39, were killed by South Vietnam during the Diem-era in democide from a range of between 16, and , South Vietnamese civilians; for to , Rummel estimated 50, people were killed in democide, from a range of between 42, and , Thus, the total for to is 81,, from a range of between 57, and , deaths caused by South Vietnam.
Torture and ill-treatment were frequently applied by the South Vietnamese to POWs as well as civilian prisoners. Hawkins and William R.
Anderson witnessed detainees either confined in minute "tiger cages" or chained to their cells, and provided with poor-quality food. A group of American doctors inspecting the prison in the same year found many inmates suffering symptoms resulting from forced immobility and torture.
South Korean forces were also accused of war crimes. Ami Pedahzur has written that "the overall volume and lethality of Viet Cong terrorism rivals or exceeds all but a handful of terrorist campaigns waged over the last third of the twentieth century", based on the definition of terrorists as a non-state actor, and examining targeted killings and civilian deaths which are estimated at over 18, from to Some mines were set only to go off after heavy vehicle passage, causing extensive slaughter aboard packed civilian buses.
American women served on active duty performing a variety of jobs. Although a small number of women were assigned to combat zones, they were never allowed directly in the field of battle.
Unlike the men, the women who served in the military were solely volunteers. They faced a plethora of challenges, one of which was the relatively small number of female soldiers.
Living in a male-dominated environment created tensions between the sexes. By , approximately 7, women had served in Vietnam in the Southeast Asian theater.
To address this problem, the ANC released advertisements portraying women in the ANC as "proper, professional and well protected.
Although female military nurses lived in a heavily male environment, very few cases of sexual harassment were ever reported.
Unlike the American women who went to Vietnam, both South and North Vietnamese women were enlisted and served in combat zones.
Women were enlisted in both the PAVN and the Viet Cong, many joining due to the promises of female equality and a greater social role within society.
All-female units were present throughout the entirety of the war, ranging from front-line combat troops to anti-aircraft, scout and reconnaissance units.
Some, like in the WAFC, served in combat with other soldiers. Others served as nurses and doctors in the battlefield and in military hospitals, or served in South Vietnam or America's intelligence agencies.
During the war more than one million rural people migrated or fled the fighting in the South Vietnamese countryside to the cities, especially Saigon.
Among the internal refugees were many young women who became the ubiquitous "bar girls" of wartime South Vietnam, "hawking her wares—be that cigarettes, liquor, or herself" to American and allied soldiers.
Women also played a prominent role as front-line reporters in the conflict, directly reporting on the conflict as it occurred.
The French-speaking Australian journalist Kate Webb was captured along with a photographer and others by the Viet Cong in Cambodia and travelled into Laos with them; they were released back into Cambodia after 23 days of captivity.
The experience of American military personnel of African ancestry during the Vietnam War had received significant attention.
For example, the website "African-American Involvement in the Vietnam War" compiles examples of such coverage,  as does the print and broadcast work of journalist Wallace Terry whose book Bloods: An Oral History of the Vietnam War by Black Veterans , includes observations about the impact of the war on the black community in general and on black servicemen specifically.
Points he makes on the latter topic include: the higher proportion of combat casualties in Vietnam among African American servicemen than among American soldiers of other races, the shift toward and different attitudes of black military careerists versus black draftees, the discrimination encountered by black servicemen "on the battlefield in decorations, promotion and duty assignments" as well as their having to endure "the racial insults, cross-burnings and Confederate flags of their white comrades"—and the experiences faced by black soldiers stateside, during the war and after America's withdrawal.
Civil rights leaders protested the disproportionate casualties and the overrepresentation in hazardous duty and combat roles experienced by African American servicemen, prompting reforms that were implemented beginning in — As a result, by the war's completion in , black casualties had declined to During the early stages of the war, the Viet Cong mainly sustained itself with captured arms; these were often of American manufacture or were crude, makeshift weapons used alongside shotguns made of galvanized pipes.
Most arms were captured from poorly defended ARVN militia outposts. They relied on ambushes, superior stealth, planning, marksmanship, and small-unit tactics to face the disproportionate US technological advantage.
By , they had fully transformed from the strategy of mobile light-infantry and using the people's war concept used against the United States.
The US service rifle was initially the M The M14 was a powerful, accurate rifle, but it was heavy, hard-recoiling, and especially unwieldy in jungle fighting, as it was unsuited for the combat conditions, often suffering from feed failure.
It was gradually replaced by the M16 rifle , designed by Eugene Stoner , between and When first deployed, the M16 also suffered from a propensity to jam in combat, leaving the soldier defenseless and potentially killing him.
This decision, made after "inadequate testing", proved that "the safety of soldiers was a secondary consideration.
While its issues were not as severe as they were in the M14 or M16, the M60 still could fail to fire at crucial times - spent casings could get stuck inside of the chamber, meaning the barrel would have to be replaced before it could fire again.
The AC was a heavily armed ground-attack aircraft variant of the C Hercules transport plane, while the Huey is a military helicopter powered by a single, turboshaft engine; approximately 7, UH-1 aircraft saw service in Vietnam.
Ground forces also had access to B and F-4 Phantom II and other aircraft to launch napalm , white phosphorus , tear gas , chemical weapons , precision-guided munition and cluster bombs.
The Vietnam War was the first conflict where U. The National Security Agency ran a crash program to provide U.
However, limitations of the units, including poor voice quality, reduced range, annoying time delays and logistical support issues, led to only one unit in ten being used.
Former U. Air Force official Earl Tilford has recounted "repeated bombing runs of a lake in central Cambodia. The Bs literally dropped their payloads in the lake.
Ten percent of the population of Ho Chi Minh City was suffering from serious venereal diseases when the war ended, and there were 4 million illiterates throughout the South.
By , the North Vietnamese had lost influence over the Khmer Rouge. The relationship between Vietnam and Democratic Kampuchea Cambodia escalated right after the end of the war.
In response to the Khmer Rouge taking over Phu Quoc on 17 April and Tho Chu on 4 May and the belief that they were responsible for the disappearance of Vietnamese natives on Tho Chu, Vietnam launched a counterattack to take back these islands.
In response, China invaded Vietnam in The two countries fought a brief border war, known as the Sino-Vietnamese War. From to , some , ethnic Chinese left Vietnam by boat as refugees or were expelled.
The Pathet Lao overthrew the monarchy of Laos in December , establishing the Lao People's Democratic Republic under the leadership of a member of the royal family, Souphanouvong.
The change in regime was "quite peaceful, a sort of Asiatic ' velvet revolution '"—although 30, former officials were sent to reeducation camps, often enduring harsh conditions for several years.
The conflict between Hmong rebels and the Pathet Lao continued in isolated pockets. The millions of cluster bombs the US dropped on Southeast Asia rendered the landscape hazardous.
Most Asian countries were unwilling to accept these refugees, many of whom fled by boat and were known as boat people. Between and , an estimated 1.
China accepted , people. Included among their ranks were "about 90 percent" of Laos's "intellectuals, technicians, and officials.
In the post-war era, Americans struggled to absorb the lessons of the military intervention. As General Maxwell Taylor, one of the principal architects of the war, noted, "First, we didn't know ourselves.
We thought that we were going into another Korean War, but this was a different country. Who was Ho Chi Minh? Nobody really knew. So, until we know the enemy and know our allies and know ourselves, we'd better keep out of this kind of dirty business.
It's very dangerous. According to a Gallup poll, 62 percent of Americans believed it was an unjust war. Failure of the war is often placed at different institutions and levels.
Some have suggested that the failure of the war was due to political failures of U. Yet in Vietnam the Army experienced tactical success and strategic failure A new humility and a new sophistication may form the best parts of a complex heritage left to the Army by the long, bitter war in Vietnam.
Others point to a failure of U. As he remarked, "I still doubt that the North Vietnamese would have relented. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger wrote in a secret memo to President Gerald Ford that "in terms of military tactics, we cannot help draw the conclusion that our armed forces are not suited to this kind of war.
Even the Special Forces who had been designed for it could not prevail. Hanoi had persistently sought unification of the country since the Geneva Accords, and the effects of U.
The costs of the war loom large in American popular consciousness; a poll showed that the public incorrectly believed that more Americans lost their lives in Vietnam than in World War II.
Westheider wrote that "At the height of American involvement in , for example, , American military personnel were stationed in Vietnam, but only 80, were considered combat troops.
As of , the U. By the war's end, 58, American soldiers had been killed, [A 4] more than , had been wounded, and at least 21, had been permanently disabled.
As the Vietnam War continued inconclusively and became more unpopular with the American public, morale declined and disciplinary problems grew among American enlisted men and junior, non-career officers.
Drug use, racial tensions, and the growing incidence of fragging—attempting to kill unpopular officers and non-commissioned officers with grenades or other weapons—created severe problems for the U.
By , a U. Army colonel writing in the Armed Forces Journal declared: "By every conceivable indicator, our army that now remains in Vietnam is in a state approaching collapse, with individual units avoiding or having refused combat, murdering their officers and non commissioned officers, drug-ridden, and dispirited where not near mutinous The morale, discipline, and battle-worthiness of the U.
Armed Forces are, with a few salient exceptions, lower and worse than at any time in this century and possibly in the history of the United States.
Army recorded more than attacks by troops on their own officers and NCOs with 99 killed. The Vietnam War called into question the U.
Army doctrine. Marine Corps general Victor H. Krulak heavily criticised Westmoreland's attrition strategy, calling it "wasteful of American lives… with small likelihood of a successful outcome.
Furthermore, throughout the war there was found to be considerable flaws and dishonesty by officers and commanders due to promotions being tied to the body count system touted by Westmoreland and McNamara.
Ron Milam has questioned the severity of the "breakdown" of the U. Investigating one combat refusal incident, a journalist declared, "A certain sense of independence, a reluctance to behave according to the military's insistence on obedience, like pawns or puppets The grunts [infantrymen] were determined to survive The last conscript was inducted into the army in One of the most controversial aspects of the U.
They were used to defoliate large parts of the countryside to prevent the Viet Cong from being able to hide their weapons and encampments under the foliage.
These chemicals continue to change the landscape, cause diseases and birth defects, and poison the food chain.
Agent Orange and similar chemical substances used by the U. Scientific reports have concluded that refugees exposed to chemical sprays while in South Vietnam continued to experience pain in the eyes and skin as well as gastrointestinal upsets.
In one study, ninety-two percent of participants suffered incessant fatigue; others reported monstrous births. There is substantial evidence that the birth defects carry on for three generations or more.
Vietnamese victims affected by Agent Orange attempted a class action lawsuit against Dow Chemical and other U. In some areas of southern Vietnam, dioxin levels remain at over times the accepted international standard.
Veterans Administration has listed prostate cancer , respiratory cancers , multiple myeloma , Diabetes mellitus type 2 , B-cell lymphomas , soft-tissue sarcoma , chloracne , porphyria cutanea tarda , peripheral neuropathy and spina bifida in children of veterans exposed to Agent Orange.
Estimates of the number of casualties vary, with one source suggesting up to 3. The military forces of South Vietnam suffered an estimated , killed between and and additional deaths from to and in Defense Department officials believed that these body count figures need to be deflated by 30 percent.
Between ,  and ,  Cambodians were estimated to have died during the war including between 50, and , combatants and civilians from US bombings.
Unexploded ordnance , mostly from U. According to the Vietnamese government, ordnance has killed some 42, people since the war officially ended.
The Vietnam War has been featured extensively in television, film, video games, music and literature in the participant countries.
In Vietnam the diary has often been compared to The Diary of Anne Frank and both are used in literary education. In American popular culture, the "Crazy Vietnam Veteran", who was suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, became a common stock character after the war.
The modern classical composer George Crumb composed a string quartet, a threnody , regarding the war in titled Black Angels. Myths play a central role in the historiography of the Vietnam War, and have become a part of the culture of the United States.
Much like the general historiography of the war, discussion of myth has focused on U. Recent scholarship has focused on "myth-busting",  : attacking the previous orthodox and revisionist schools of American historiography of the Vietnam War.
This scholarship challenges myths about American society and soldiery in the Vietnam War. Kuzmarov in The Myth of the Addicted Army: Vietnam and the Modern War on Drugs challenges the popular and Hollywood narrative that US soldiers were heavy drug users,  in particular the notion that the My Lai massacre was caused by drug use.
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Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. Supported by:. Kennedy Lyndon B. Weyand Paul D. Momyer John S.
McCain Jr. South Vietnam: , 1,, —  United States: 2,, serving in Vietnam total Peak: , April  : xlv Khmer Republic: ,  Laos: 72, Royal Army and Hmong militia   South Korea: 48, per year —, , total Thailand: 32, per year — in Vietnam  and Laos  Australia: 50, total Peak: 7, combat troops New Zealand: 3, total Peak: combat troops  : Philippines: 2, Vietnamese civilian dead : ,—2,,  : —3   Vietnamese total dead : ,  —3,,  Cambodian Civil War dead : ,—,    Laotian Civil War dead : 20,—62,  Non-Indochinese military dead : 65, Total dead : 1,,—4,, For more information see Vietnam War casualties and Aircraft losses of the Vietnam War.
Indochina Wars. Military engagements during the Vietnam War. Massacres of the Vietnam War. Further information: Terminology of the Vietnam War.
Main articles: Viet Cong and War in Vietnam — Main article: Joint warfare in South Vietnam, — Main article: Gulf of Tonkin incident.
Further information: Credibility gap. Play media. Main article: Laotian Civil War. See also: Buddhist Uprising. Further information: G.
See also: Russell Tribunal and Fulbright Hearings. See also: China in the Vietnam War. See also: Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.
Main article: South Korea in the Vietnam War. Main article: Thailand in the Vietnam War. Main article: Republic of China in the Vietnam War.
Main article: Canada and the Vietnam War. See also: List of massacres in Vietnam. Main article: Weapons of the Vietnam War. Further information: Mayaguez incident and Indochina refugee crisis.
Main article: Vietnam War casualties. See also: Vietnam War body count controversy. This section needs additional citations for verification.
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Vietnam portal United States portal War portal s portal s portal. Fitzgibbon's family the start date of the Vietnam War according to the US government was officially changed to 1 November I've told you that when I want you I'll call you.
Stennis MS and Richard B. Russell Jr. Ford MI and Leslie C. Arends IL. Arends and Ford were leaders of the Republican minority and the other three were Democrats on either the Armed Services or Appropriations committees.
Jackson estimated that 65, South Vietnamese were executed for political reasons between and , based on a survey of Vietnamese refugees who claimed to have personally witnessed 47 executions.
However, "their methodology was reviewed and criticized as invalid by authors Gareth Porter and James Roberts.
Rather than arguing that this duplication rate proves there were very few executions in post-war Vietnam, Porter and Roberts suggest it is an artifact of the self-selected nature of the participants in the Desbarats-Jackson study, as the authors followed subjects's recommendations on other refugees to interview.
Retrieved 20 July Similar Swedish aid was to go to Cambodian and Laotian civilians affected by the Indochinese fighting.
This support was primarily humanitarian in nature and included no military aid. Tonkin Gulf and the Escalation of the Vietnam War.
Univ of North Carolina Press. University of Malaya Student Repository. Retrieved 17 October Archived from the original PDF on 16 October The Tunku had been personally responsible for Malaya's partisan support of the South Vietnamese regime in its fight against the Vietcong and, in reply to a Parliamentary question on 6 February , he had listed all the used weapons and equipment of the Royal Malaya Police given to Saigon.
These included a total of 45, single-barrel shotguns, armoured cars and smaller numbers of carbines and pistols. Writing in , he revealed that "we had clandestinely been giving 'aid' to Vietnam since early Published American archival sources now reveal that the actual Malaysian contributions to the war effort in Vietnam included the following: "over 5, Vietnamese officers trained in Malaysia; training of U.
It is undeniable that the Government's policy of supporting the South Vietnamese regime with arms, equipment and training was regarded by some quarters, especially the Opposition parties, as a form of interfering in the internal affairs of that country and the Tunku's valiant efforts to defend it were not convincing enough, from a purely foreign policy standpoint.
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Embassy of South Vietnam. March The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February The Vietnamese government officially claimed a rough estimate of 2 million civilian deaths, but it did not divide these deaths between those of North and South Vietnam.
British Medical Journal. From to , data from the surveys indicated an estimated 5. Forced Migration and Mortality. National Academies Press. As best as can now be estimated, over two million Cambodians died during the s because of the political events of the decade, the vast majority of them during the mere four years of the 'Khmer Rouge' regime.
Subsequent reevaluations of the demographic data situated the death toll for the [civil war] in the order of , or less.
Paige Yale University Southeast Asia Studies. An estimated , excess deaths. We have modeled the highest mortality that we can justify for the early s.
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Indiana University Press. Vietnam Studies Group. Archived from the original on 20 April Retrieved 15 July There is no reason to expect, and no evidence that I have seen to demonstrate, that the actual executions were less than planned; in fact the executions perhaps exceeded the plan if we consider two following factors.
First, this decree was issued in for the rent and interest reduction campaign that preceded the far more radical land redistribution and party rectification campaigns or waves that followed during — Second, the decree was meant to apply to free areas under the control of the Viet Minh government , not to the areas under French control that would be liberated in — and that would experience a far more violent struggle.
Thus the number of 13, executed people seems to be a low-end estimate of the real number. In this paper Moise 7—9 modified his earlier estimate in his book which was 5, and accepted an estimate close to 15, executions.
Moise made the case based on Hungarian reports provided by Balazs, but the document I cited above offers more direct evidence for his revised estimate.
This document also suggests that the total number should be adjusted up some more, taking into consideration the later radical phase of the campaign, the unauthorized killings at the local level, and the suicides following arrest and torture the central government bore less direct responsibility for these cases, however.
Szalontai, Balazs November Cold War History. Vu, Tuong Cambridge University Press. Clearly Vietnamese socialism followed a moderate path relative to China.
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Averell Harriman and Dean Acheson spoke a different language. Into the Quagmire. New York: Oxford University Press. Speaking through an interpreter, a local guard explained to me that a handful of Viet Cong agents had entered the hamlet one night and told the peasants to tear it down and return to their native villages.
The peasants complied without question. The World Transformed — to the Present. New York: Oxford. Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War.
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